memory and personality disorders

The two main features of amnesia are:
Impaired ability to learn new information following the onset of amnesia (anterograde amnesia)
Impaired ability to recall past events and previously familiar information (retrograde amnesia)
Most people with amnesia have problems with short-term memory — they can’t retain new information. Recent memories are most likely to be lost, while more remote or deeply ingrained memories may be spared. Someone may recall experiences from childhood or know the names of past presidents, but not be able to name the current president or remember what month it is or what was for breakfast.

Besides ADHD, other potential causes of inattention, include: developmental problems in particular brain regions, family situations, unreasonable expectations of a child by parents or teachers, a conscious effort to avoid humiliation, certain sleep disorders, chronic lack of sleep, insufficient breakfast, recurrent bullying, or specific learning disabilities in academic situations

20 Things to Remember If You Love a Person with ADD/ADHD

Inability to suppress (inhibit) impulsive behavior and emotions
“An individual experiencing disinhibition may not be able to disguise some of their emotional responses,
sometimes at the expense of politeness, sensitivity, or social appropriateness. Individuals under the
influence of alcohol, for example, exhibit disinhibition in view of the depressant effect of alcohol
on the brain’s higher functioning.”
In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania. Hypersexuality, hyperphagia, and aggressive outbursts are indicative of disinhibited instinctual drives.[1]

Online disinhibition effect
The online disinhibition effect is a loosening (or complete abandonment) of social restrictions and inhibitions that would otherwise be present in normal face-to-face interaction during interactions with others on the Internet. This effect is caused by many factors, including dissociative anonymity (or, more precisely, the appearance thereof), invisibility, asynchronicity, solipsistic introjection, dissociative imagination, and minimization of authority.

Impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a multifactorial construct[1] that involves a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.[2] Impulsive actions typically are “poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation that often result in undesirable consequences,”[3] which imperil long term goals and strategies for success.[4] A functional variety of impulsivity has also been suggested, which involves action without much forethought in appropriate situations that can and does result in desirable consequences. “When such actions have positive outcomes, they tend not to be seen as signs of impulsivity, but as indicators of boldness, quickness, spontaneity, courageousness, or unconventionality”[3][5] Thus, the construct of impulsivity includes at least two independent components: (1) acting without an appropriate amount of deliberation,[3] which may or may not be functional, and (2) choosing short-term over long-term gains.[6]

Introduction to Memory Techniques

How to Improve Your Memory

Tips and techniques to improve your memory

11 Great Ways to Improve Your Memory

List of disorders

List of mental disorders

List of disorders

“Anxiety Disorders
Childhood Disorders
Eating Disorders
Mood Disorders
Cognitive Disorders (Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic Disorders)
Personality Disorders
Schizophrenia & Other Psychotic Disorders
Substance-Related Disorders”

Hysteria, histrionic personality disorder

histrionic personality disorder

“The term “hysteria” has been in use for over 2,000 years and its definition has become broader and more diffuse over time. In modern psychology and psychiatry, hysteria is a feature of hysterical disorders in which a patient experiences physical symptoms that have a psychological, rather than an organic, cause; and histrionic personality disorder characterized by excessive emotions, dramatics, and attention-seeking behavior.”

Histrionic personality disorder
“Histrionic personality disorder (HPD) is defined by the American Psychiatric Association as a personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, usually beginning in early adulthood, including inappropriately seductive behavior and an excessive need for approval. Histrionic people are lively, dramatic, vivacious, enthusiastic, and flirtatious. HPD affects four times as many women as men.[1] It has a prevalence of 2–3% in the general population and 10–15% in inpatient and outpatient mental health institutions.[2]
HPD lies in the dramatic cluster of personality disorders.[3] People with HPD have a high need for attention, make loud and inappropriate appearances, exaggerate their behaviors and emotions, and crave stimulation.[3] They may exhibit sexually provocative behavior, express strong emotions with an impressionistic style, and can be easily influenced by others. Associated features include egocentrism, self-indulgence, continuous longing for appreciation, and persistent manipulative behavior to achieve their own needs.”

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
“Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder caused by very stressful, frightening or distressing events.
Someone with PTSD often relives the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks, and may experience feelings of isolation, irritability and guilt.
They may also have problems sleeping, such as insomnia, and find concentrating difficult.”

What is post-traumatic stress disorder?
If you are involved in or witness a traumatic event, it is common to experience upsetting, distressing or confusing feelings afterwards. The feelings of distress may not emerge straight away – you may just feel emotionally numb at first. After a while you may develop emotional and physical reactions, such as feeling easily upset or not being able to sleep.
This is understandable, and many people find that these symptoms disappear in a relatively short period of time. But if your problems last for longer than a month, or are very extreme, you may be given a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
There’s no time limit on distress, and some people may not develop post-traumatic symptoms until many years after the event. Additionally, not everyone who has experienced a traumatic event develops PTSD.

Posttraumatic stress disorder

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
“People who have repeatedly experienced:
severe neglect or abuse as an adult or as a child
severe repeated violence or abuse as an adult, such as torture or abusive imprisonment
can have a similar set of reactions. This is called ‘complex PTSD’ and is described later on in this leaflet.”

Seasonal affective disorder

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Seasonal Affective Disorder

Paranoid personality disorder
“Paranoid personality disorder (PPD) is a mental disorder characterized by paranoia and a pervasive, long-standing suspiciousness and generalized mistrust of others. Individuals with this personality disorder may be hypersensitive, easily feel slighted, and habitually relate to the world by vigilant scanning of the environment for clues or suggestions that may validate their fears or biases. Paranoid individuals are eager observers. They think they are in danger and look for signs and threats of that danger, potentially not appreciating other evidence.”

Borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder – Diagnosis
“A checklist of internationally recognised criteria is used to diagnose BPD. A diagnosis can usually be made if you answer “yes” to five or more of the following questions:
Do you have an intense fear of being left alone, which causes you to act in ways that, on reflection, seem out of the ordinary or extreme, such as constantly phoning somebody (but not including self-harming or suicidal behaviour)?
Do you have a pattern of intense and unstable relationships with other people that switch between thinking you love that person and they are wonderful to hating that person and thinking they are terrible?
Do you ever feel you do not have a strong sense of your own self and are unclear about your self-image?
Do you engage in impulsive activities in two areas that are potentially damaging, such as unsafe sex, drug abuse or reckless spending (but not including self-harming or suicidal behaviour)?
Have you made repeated suicide threats or attempts in your past and engaged in self-harming?
Do you have severe mood swings, such as feeling intensely depressed, anxious or irritable, which last from a few hours to a few days?
Do you have long-term feelings of emptiness and loneliness?
Do you have sudden and intense feelings of anger and aggression, and often find it difficult to control your anger?
When you find yourself in stressful situations, do you have feelings of paranoia, or do you feel like you are disconnected from the world or from your own body, thoughts and behaviour?”

Self-Assessment on Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) aka “Borderline Syndrome”

Borderline Personality Test

Borderline Personality Disorder
“According to the DSM, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), to be diagnosed with borderline personality disorder, a person must show an enduring pattern of behavior that includes at least five of the following symptoms:

Extreme reactions—including panic, depression, rage, or frantic actions—to abandonment, whether real or perceived
A pattern of intense and stormy relationships with family, friends, and loved ones, often veering from extreme closeness and love (idealization) to extreme dislike or anger (devaluation)
Distorted and unstable self-image or sense of self, which can result in sudden changes in feelings, opinions, values, or plans and goals for the future (such as school or career choices)
Impulsive and often dangerous behaviors, such as spending sprees, unsafe sex, substance abuse, reckless driving, and binge eating
Recurring suicidal behaviors or threats or self-harming behavior, such as cutting
Intense and highly changeable moods, with each episode lasting from a few hours to a few days
Chronic feelings of emptiness and/or boredom
Inappropriate, intense anger or problems controlling anger
Having stress-related paranoid thoughts or severe dissociative symptoms, such as feeling cut off from oneself, observing oneself from outside the body, or losing touch with reality.
Seemingly mundane events may trigger symptoms. For example, people with BPD may feel angry and distressed over minor separations—such as vacations, business trips, or sudden changes of plans—from people to whom they feel close. Studies show that people with this disorder may see anger in an emotionally neutral face and have a stronger reaction to words with negative meanings than people who do not have the disorder.

Suicide and Self-harm

Self-injurious behavior includes suicide and suicide attempts, as well as self-harming behaviors, described below. As many as 80 percent of people with BPD have suicidal behaviors, and about 4 to 9 percent commit suicide.

Suicide is one of the most tragic outcomes of any mental illness. Some treatments can help reduce suicidal behaviors in people with BPD. For example, one study showed that dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) reduced suicide attempts in women by half compared with other types of psychotherapy, or talk therapy. DBT also reduced use of emergency room and inpatient services and retained more participants in therapy, compared to other approaches to treatment.

Unlike suicide attempts, self-harming behaviors do not stem from a desire to die. However, some self-harming behaviors may be life threatening. Self-harming behaviors linked with BPD include cutting, burning, hitting, head banging, hair pulling, and other harmful acts. People with BPD may self-harm to help regulate their emotions, to punish themselves, or to express their pain. They do not always see these behaviors as harmful.”

Borderline personality disorder
“What is borderline personality disorder (BPD)?
It used to be thought that people with BPD were at the “border” between:
neurosis – where a person is mentally distressed, but can still tell the difference between their perception and reality
psychosis – where a person is unable to tell the difference between their perception and reality, and may experience delusions and hallucinations
Now it’s known that this is not an accurate description. BPD is best understood as a disorder of mood and how a person interacts with others.
BPD is a common personality disorder seen by healthcare professionals. Although BPD is said to be more common in women, this is probably because it is recognised less frequently in men, who may be less likely to seek treatment.”

Borderline personality disorder
“It’s scary. […] One moment I’m really happy and then the next I’m crying for absolutely no reason or having a go at people. People think I’m just being moody for the sake of it.
What are the symptoms of BPD?
You might be given a diagnosis of BPD if you experience at least five of the following things, and they’ve lasted for a long time or have a big impact on your daily life:

You feel very worried about people abandoning you, and would do anything to stop that happening.
You have very intense emotions that last from a few hours to a few days and can change quickly (for example, from feeling very happy and confident in the morning to feeling low and sad in the afternoon).
You don’t have a strong sense of who you are, and it can change depending on who you’re with.
You find it very hard to make and keep stable relationships.
You act impulsively and do things that could harm you (such as binge eating, using drugs or driving dangerously).
You have suicidal thoughts or self-harming behaviour.
You feel empty and lonely a lot of the time.
You get very angry, and struggle to control your anger.
When very stressed, sometimes you might:
feel paranoid
have psychotic experiences, such as seeing or hearing things other people don’t
feel numb or ‘checked out’ and not remember things properly after they’ve happened.
Because you only need to experience five of these possible symptoms to be given the diagnosis, BPD can be a very broad diagnosis and include lots of different people with very different experiences.

[For me] having BPD is like the emotional version of being a burn victim. Everything in the world hurts more than it seems to for everyone else and any ‘thick skin’ you are supposed to have just isn’t there.”

Personality Disorders,P00760/

Intrusive thought
“An intrusive thought is an unwelcome involuntary thought, image, or unpleasant idea that may become an obsession, is upsetting or distressing, and can feel difficult to manage or eliminate.[1] When such thoughts are associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and sometimes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the thoughts may become paralyzing, anxiety-provoking, or persistent. Intrusive thoughts may also be associated with episodic memory, unwanted worries or memories from OCD,[2] posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, eating disorders, or psychosis.[3] Intrusive thoughts, urges, and images are of inappropriate things at inappropriate times, and generally have aggressive, sexual, or blasphemous themes.[4]”

Body dysmorphic disorder
“Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also termed body dysmorphia or dysmorphic syndrome, but originally termed dysmorphophobia, is a mental disorder characterized by an obsessive preoccupation that some aspect of one’s own appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.[1] In BDD’s delusional variant, the flaw is imagined.[2] If the flaw is actual, its importance is severely exaggerated.[2] Either way, one’s thoughts about it are pervasive and intrusive, occupying up to several hours a day. The DSM-5 categorizes BDD in the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and distinguishes it from anorexia nervosa.

A fairly common mental disorder, affecting some 1.7% to 2.4% of the population, BDD usually starts during adolescence, and affects men and women roughly equally.[2] (The BDD subtype muscle dysmorphia, perceiving the body as too small, affects mostly males.)[3] Besides thinking about it, one repetitively checks and compares the perceived flaw, and can adopt unusual routines to avoid social contact that exposes it.[2] Fearing the stigma of vanity, one usually hides the preoccupation.[2] Commonly unsuspected even by psychiatrists, BDD has been greatly underdiagnosed.[2] Severely impairing quality of life via educational and occupational dysfunction and social isolation, BDD involves especially high rates of suicide and suicidal ideation.[2]”

Dependent personality disorder
“Dependent personality disorder is characterized by an excessive need to be taken care of or depend upon others. Persons with this disorder are typically submissive and display clinging behavior toward those from whom they fear being separated.
Dependent personality disorder is one of several personality disorders listed in the newest edition of the standard reference guide: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , also known as the DSM-IV-TR .”
Social Cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder: Evidence for Disturbed Recognition of the Emotions, Thoughts, and Intentions of others

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
“Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience is an open-access journal that aims to publish major insights into animal and human behavior, in order to better understand the neural mechanisms underlying behavior.”


“Paranoia is a thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of irrationality and delusion.[1] Paranoid thinking typically includes persecutory, or beliefs of conspiracy concerning a perceived threat towards oneself (e.g. “Everyone is out to get me”). Paranoia is distinct from phobias, which also involve irrational fear, but usually no blame. Making false accusations and the general distrust of others also frequently accompany paranoia. For example, an incident most people would view as an accident or coincidence, a paranoid person might believe it was intentional.”

What is paranoia?
“Everybody experiences suspicious or irrational thoughts from time to time. These fears are described as paranoid when they are exaggerated and there is no evidence that they are true.

There are three key features of paranoid thoughts. If you have paranoia, you may:

fear that something bad will happen
think that other people or external causes are responsible
have beliefs that are exaggerated or unfounded.
Generally speaking, if you are experiencing paranoia, you will feel a sense of threat and fear.

There are different types of threat or harm that you may feel paranoid about. You may feel you are at risk of:

psychological or emotional harm – thinking somebody is bullying you, spreading rumours about you, talking about you behind your back
physical harm – believing somebody trying to physically hurt or injure you, or even trying to kill you
financial harm – thinking another person is stealing from you, or is damaging your property or tricking you into giving away your money.
It could be one person you feel threatened by, or it may be a group of people, an organisation, an event or an object.”
“Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition that causes a range of different psychological symptoms, including:
hallucinations – hearing or seeing things that do not exist
delusions – unusual beliefs not based on reality that often contradict the evidence
muddled thoughts based on hallucinations or delusions
changes in behaviour
Doctors often describe schizophrenia as a psychotic illness. This means sometimes a person may not be able to distinguish their own thoughts and ideas from reality.”

Schizophrenia & Dissociative Disorders: Crash Course Psychology #32

Schizophrenia – Full documentary on how schizophrenia effects individuals and relationships

bipolar disorder

World Bipolar Day: What is bipolar disorder? What are its symptoms?

Symptoms of bipolar disorder

Could it Be Bipolar? – Seven Signs to Look For

Bipolar Disorder Health Center

10 Subtle Signs of Bipolar Disorder,,20436786,00.html

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

“Up/Down” Bipolar Disorder Documentary FULL MOVIE (2011)

Mental Disorders

List of films featuring mental disorders
Schizophrenia Documentary (HBO) 1080 HD

“Back From the Edge” – Borderline Personality Disorder

Mad, bad or sad? The Psychology of Personality Disorders – Professor Glenn D Wilson

Border _ : A compassionate documentary on Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) FULL MOVIE

Mental Disorder Documentaries

Psychotic experiences


“Neurosis is a class of functional mental disorders involving distress but neither delusions nor hallucinations. Neurosis may also be called psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder.”
“Neurosis may be defined simply as a “poor ability to adapt to one’s environment, an inability to change one’s life patterns, and the inability to develop a richer, more complex, more satisfying personality.”

“In medicine, distress is an aversive state in which a person is unable to adapt completely to stressors and their resulting stress and shows maladaptive behaviors.[1] It can be evident in the presence of various phenomena, such as inappropriate social interaction (e.g., aggression, passivity, or withdrawal).
Distress is the opposite of eustress, a positive stress that motivates people.”

Narcissistic Personality

Narcissistic Personality Disorder
“The serial bully displays behaviour congruent with many of the diagnostic criteria for Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Characterised by a pervasive pattern of grandiosity and self-importance, need for admiration, and lack of empathy, people with narcissistic personality disorder overestimate their abilities and inflate their accomplishments, often appearing boastful and pretentious, whilst correspondingly underestimating and devaluing the achievements and accomplishments of others.”

Top 70 Traits of People with Personality Disorders

Narcissistic Personality Disorder Symptoms

Belittling, Condescending and Patronizing
“Belittling, Condescending and Patronizing – This kind of speech is a passive-aggressive approach to giving someone a verbal put-down while maintaining a facade of reasonableness or friendliness.”

Being Patronizing (why and how to avoid such behavior?)

Dissociative Identity Disorder, Multiple Personality, Split Personality

Dissociative Identity Disorder is nothing like the movie ‘Split,’ according to people who have it

Asperger syndrome

Asperger syndrome

Symptoms of Asperger syndrome

High-functioning autism

Autism spectrum disorder and adults

The psychology of narcissism – W. Keith Campbell


why do we get bored? boredom-disgust, substance abuse, lack of social interaction, prisoners

Robert Plutchik’s wheel of emotions

Selective mutism

Selective mutism: ‘I have a phobia of talking’
“Selective mutism – best described as a “phobia of talking” – is an anxiety disorder that affects thousands of children. But adults with the condition remain largely forgotten. What is it like for them?”

Selective mutism
“Selective mutism is a severe anxiety disorder where a person is unable to speak in certain social situations, such as with classmates at school or to relatives they don’t see very often.”

“Selective mutism is a childhood anxiety disorder where a child cannot speak in almost all social situations despite being able to. Selective mutism usually begins in children under five years of age, though it may only become noticeable when a child begins school. Most children with selective mutism are believed to have an inherited predisposition to anxiety and there can be a variety of additional contributing causes.”

“Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder in which a person who is normally capable of speech cannot speak in specific situations or to specific people. Selective mutism usually co-exists with shyness or social anxiety.[1] People with selective mutism stay silent even when the consequences of their silence include shame, social ostracism or even punishment.[2] Selective mutism affects about 0.8% of people at some point in their lives”

Anxiety disorder
“Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.[2] Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events.[2] These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a fast heart rate and shakiness.[2] There are a number of anxiety disorders: including generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and selective mutism.[2] The disorder differs by what results in the symptoms.[2] People often have more than one anxiety disorder.”

List of genetic disorders