Asch Conformity Experiment

Asch Conformity Experiment
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TYIh4MkcfJA

BBC 4 Radio: Mind changers: Solomon Asch – Conformity
http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p00f8mzr

Conformity & Groupthink
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ds3-ljxTRvo

Asch Experiment
“The Asch Experiment, by Solomon Asch, was a famous experiment designed to test how peer pressure to conform would influence the judgment and individuality of a test subject.

The experiment is related closely to the Stanford Prison and Milgram Experiments, in that it tries to show how perfectly normal human beings can be pressured into unusual behavior by authority figures, or by the consensus of opinion around them.

For the experiment, eight subjects were seated around a table, with the seating plan carefully constructed to prevent any suspicion.

Only one participant was actually a genuine subject for the experiment, the rest being confederates, carefully tutored to give certain pre-selected responses. Careful experimental construction placed a varying amount of peer pressure on the individual test subject.”
https://explorable.com/asch-experiment

The Asch Conformity Experiments
http://psychology.about.com/od/classicpsychologystudies/p/conformity.htm

Solomon Asch experiment (1958): A study of conformity
“Social Pressure and Perception

Imagine yourself in the following situation: You sign up for a psychology experiment, and on a specified date you and seven others whom you think are also subjects arrive and are seated at a table in a small room. You don’t know it at the time, but the others are actually associates of the experimenter, and their behavior has been carefully scripted. You’re the only real subject.

The experimenter arrives and tells you that the study in which you are about to participate concerns people’s visual judgments. She places two cards before you. The card on the left contains one vertical line. The card on the right displays three lines of varying length.”
http://www.age-of-the-sage.org/psychology/social/asch_conformity.html

Asch conformity experiments
“In psychology, the Asch conformity experiments or the Asch Paradigm were a series of laboratory experiments directed by Solomon Asch in the 1950s that demonstrated the degree to which an individual’s own opinions are influenced by those of a majority group.[1][2][3][4]

The methodology developed by Asch has been utilised by many researchers and the paradigm is in use in present day social psychology. The paradigm has been used to investigate the relationship between conformity and task importance,[5] age,[6] gender,[7][8][9][10] and culture.[5][10]”

In his 1951 experiment and subsequent studies, Asch wanted to further his investigation of conformity by examining whether slight changes in participants’ environments would lead to different results. He had the following experimental variations:

Presence of a true partner
Asch examined whether the presence of a “true partner” influenced level of conformity.[1][3] This partner was also a “real” participant or another actor that was told to give the correct response to each question. This decreased the level of conformity, especially when the partner was instructed to give correct responses.
Withdrawal of a partner
Asch also examined whether the removal of a partner (that he instructed to give correct answers) halfway through the experiment would influence the participants’ level of conformity.[1][3] He found that there was a low level of conformity during the first half of the experiment. However, once the partner left the room, the level of conformity increased dramatically.
Majority size
Asch also examined whether decreasing or increasing the majority size had an influence on participants’ level of conformity.[1][2][3] It was discovered that the smaller the size of the opposing group (confederates), the lower the level of conformity, and by simply increasing the opposing group to two or three persons, the level of conformity increased substantially. However, an opposing group beyond three persons (e.g., four, five, six, etc.) did not increase conformity.
Written responses
Asch wanted to know whether altering participants’ method of responding would have an influence on their level of conformity. He constructed an experiment whereby all confederates verbalized their responses aloud and only the “real” participant was allowed to respond in writing. He discovered that conformity significantly decreased when shifting from public to written responses.”

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asch_conformity_experiments

Asch Experiment
“Imagine yourself in the following situation: You sign up for a psychology experiment, and on a specified date you and seven others whom you think are also participants arrive and are seated at a table in a small room.

You don’t know it at the time, but the others are actually associates of the experimenter, and their behavior has been carefully scripted. You’re the only real participant.

The experimenter arrives and tells you that the study in which you are about to participate concerns people’s visual judgments. She places two cards before you. The card on the left contains one vertical line. The card on the right displays three lines of varying length.

The experimenter asks all of you, one at a time, to choose which of the three lines on the right card matches the length of the line on the left card. The task is repeated several times with different cards.

On some occasions the other “participants” unanimously choose the wrong line. It is clear to you that they are wrong, but they have all given the same answer.

What would you do? Would you go along with the majority opinion, or would you “stick to your guns” and trust your own eyes?

If you were involved in this experiment how do you think you would behave? Would you conform to the majority’s viewpoint?”
http://www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html

 

Informational social influence examples
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0u2KLUwgQbo
Normative social influence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normative_social_influence

Informational social influence or Social Proof
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_proof

 

Learned helplessness

 

“Learned helplessness is a behaviour in which an organism forced to endure aversive, painful or otherwise unpleasant stimuli, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are escapable.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness

What Is Learned Helplessness?
“Learned helplessness occurs when an animal is repeatedly subjected to an aversive stimulus that it cannot escape. Eventually, the animal will stop trying to avoid the stimulus and behave as if it is utterly helpless to change the situation. Even when opportunities to escape are presented, this learned helplessness will prevent any action.”
http://psychology.about.com/od/lindex/f/earned-helplessness.htm

Learned helplessness
“Learned helplessness, in psychology, a mental state in which an organism forced to bear aversive stimuli, or stimuli that are painful or otherwise unpleasant, becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are “escapable,” presumably because it has learned that it cannot control the situation.

The theory of learned helplessness was conceptualized and developed by American psychologist Martin E.P. Seligman at the University of Pennsylvania in the late 1960s and ’70s. While conducting experimental research on classical conditioning, Seligman inadvertently discovered that dogs that had received unavoidable electric shocks failed to take action in subsequent situations—even those in which escape or avoidance was in fact possible—whereas dogs that had not received the unavoidable shocks immediately took action in subsequent situations. The experiment was replicated with human subjects (using loud noise as opposed to electric shocks), yielding similar results. Seligman coined the term learned helplessness to describe the expectation that outcomes are uncontrollable.”
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/1380861/learned-helplessness

 

Social Dynamics

 

The Complete guide to alpha male behavior for seduction and social dynamics
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_TijDInhnEg

 

 

conformity in tech teams

“We sometimes tend to blend too much with the rest of the team. Think of this example – if you put ten people in a room and ask them the same question, by the tenth reply you might notice that people start echoing each other and you receive progressively similar answers. Similarly to this group think phenomenon, in an agile team it is easy to blend in. Because the whole team accelerates together in two-week sprint cycles and team members spend so much time together planning and coming up with solutions, there comes a point where the team starts operating in its own bubble and loses some of its agility. The various capabilities lose some of their edge. We start conforming. Just like when you run a marathon and subconsciously pace yourself in relation to people running next to you, in an agile team people tend to conform. We conform with others’ ideas, with their pace of work and working style. At that point the designer needs to maintain a certain level of design-focused awareness to keep questioning the work from design perspective and to keep identifying the assumptions the team might have fallen for. ”
https://www.fjordnet.com/conversations/a-service-designer-in-agile-land/