bullying and harassment

Workplace bullying and harassment
“Bullying and harassment is behaviour that makes someone feel intimidated or offended. Harassment is unlawful under the Equality Act 2010.
Examples of bullying or harassing behaviour include:

spreading malicious rumours
unfair treatment
picking on someone
regularly undermining a competent worker
denying someone’s training or promotion opportunities”

ACAS: A guide for employees: Bullying and harassment at work

Advice leaflet – Bullying and harassment at work: Guidance for employees

Harassment at work
“The Equality Act 2010 protects you from harassment at work by your employer or colleagues. It includes things like abusive or threatening comments, jokes or behaviour.

If you’ve experienced harassment at work, you may be able to do something about it.

Read this page to find out more about harassment at work.

When is something harassment?

Harassment is unwanted or unwelcome behaviour which is meant to or has the effect of either:

violating your dignity, or
creating an intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment.
It doesn’t have to be directed at you – for example, if your colleagues make jokes or comments to each other within your earshot. Bullying can be unlawful harassment under the Equality Act.

Unwanted behaviour could be:

spoken or written words
threats or abuse
offensive emails, tweets or comments on social networking sites
physical behaviour including physical gestures and facial expressions
jokes, teasing and pranks.
Harassment is a form of unlawful discrimination under the Equality Act. If you’ve been unlawfully harassed, you can take action under the Act.

If you’ve been harassed but it’s not unlawful discrimination, there may be other things you can do – for example, you can still complain to your employer about it or you may be able to take action under the Protection from Harassment Act 1997.

More about other actions you can take if you’re being harassed
Why did the harassment happen?

Harassment by someone at work is unlawful discrimination under the Equality Act if it’s because of, or related to:

gender reassignment
religion or belief
sexual orientation.
The Equality Act calls these things protected characteristics. Harassment which is because of one of these things is called harassment related to a protected characteristic.


You’re being bullied at work by your manager. He’s verbally abusive towards you because you’re a Roma Gypsy. He also makes offensive jokes to other colleagues about Gypsies which you overhear.

You’ve raised the issue with the human resources department and they gave your line manager a warning but the bullying still goes on.

This is likely to be unlawful harassment related to your race and your employer should take action to stop the harassment. As they’ve failed to do this, you can make a claim about unlawful harassment in the employment tribunal.”



Bullying at work
“Bullying at work can take many forms – some can be directed at you personally, others relate to work activities

There is no legal definition of workplace bullying. However, experts believe that bullying involves negative behaviour being targeted at an individual, or individuals, repeatedly and persistently over time.

Negative behaviour
Negative behaviour includes:

Ignoring or excluding you
Giving you unachievable tasks or ’setting you up to fail’
Spreading malicious rumours or gossip
Giving you meaningless tasks or unpleasant jobs
Making belittling remarks
Undermining your integrity
Withholding information deliberately
Making you look stupid in public
Undervaluing your contribution –not giving credit where it is due
Harassment, can relate to unlawful discrimination, which can be on the grounds of race, sex, disability, age, religion or belief, or sexual orientation. The Prevention of Harassment Act (1997) covers harassment more generally.

How can bullying or harassment make you feel?
Bullying can impact on your health, for example:

It can result in psychological health problems such as depression, anxiety or low self-esteem
It can result in physical health problems such as stomach problems, or sleep difficulties
If you’ve witnessed the bullying of a colleague, this can also be very upsetting and can impact on your health.
Your performance at work can be affected.
What can I do?
It can be extremely upsetting to be on the receiving end of what you perceive to be harassing or bullying behaviour, or to witness it. You may feel you are being overly sensitive or it may lower your self-esteem. If you are not sure how to tackle this very awkward subject there are a number of things you can do and many sources of support and information.

Consult your organisation’s bullying and harassment policy
If your organisation has a policy, it should tell you what your first steps should be. The policy should include definitions of what your organisation regards as standards of acceptable behaviour. It should also advise you on how to start to address the issue – the first step is normally an informal discussion with your manager or a designated colleague to explore your concerns.
If your organisation does not have a policy, try the following:

Speak to someone you feel comfortable talking to about your concerns.
This may be your manager, a colleague, a TU or staff representative, your employee assistance programme or other sources of support such as the helplines listed below. You could describe the behaviour you’ve been experiencing and get their opinion of whether it may constitute bullying or harassment. You may also want to mention your concerns, anonymously if necessary, to any stress working groups that your organisation has in place.
Resolve the issue informally.
Many issues can be resolved informally. This may involve you, with the support of a colleague or manager, approaching the person whom you believe is treating your unfairly or inappropriately. You could describe the unacceptable behaviour and explain how it makes you feel and how you would like it to change. It may be that the perpetrator does not realise their behaviour is upsetting, so they need to be given the chance to modify their actions.
Mediation by a neutral third party can often be helpful in resolving difficult issues such as bullying or harassment. There may be trained mediators within your organisation, or contact one of the organisations listed below who may be able to provide such services.
If informal resolution has not worked, follow a formal complaints procedure.
Your organisation will most likely have a formal complaints procedure. You need to follow this. If your complaint is upheld, your organisation may pursue a number of options.
Legal action
Taking legal action is a complex process. Both you and your employer should take expert advice and legal representation.”



“Emotional Harassment
Unlike physical harassment, emotional harassment is unnoticeable and also viewed as being more socially acceptable.[15] Naturally, emotional harassment in the workplace gets less attention than physical harassment in the workplace, which perpetuates the issue of emotional harassment in the workplace.[15] According to Keashly, emotional harassment can be defined as “the hostile verbal and nonverbal behaviors that are not explicitly tied to sexual or racial content yet are directed at gaining compliance from others.” [15] In short, emotional harassment is manipulation of people’s actions through social behaviors.

One common form of emotional abuse in workplace is bullying. Also known as mobbing, workplace bullying “is a long lasting, escalated conflict with frequent harassing actions systematically aimed at a target person.” [16] Specific actions of workplace bullying include the following: false accusations of mistakes and errors, hostile glares and other intimidating non-verbal behaviors, yelling, shouting, and screaming, exclusion and the “silent treatment,” withholding resources and information necessary to the job, behind-the-back sabotage and defamation, use of put-downs, insults, and excessively harsh criticism, and unreasonably heavy work demands designed to ensure failure.[17] The 2014 Workplace Bullying Institute/Zogby national survey shows that 27 percent have experienced workplace bullying in the past, and seven percent of employees currently suffer workplace bullying.[17] In addition, “more than 97% of nurse managers reported experiencing abuse, whereas 60% of retail industry workers, 23% of faculty and university staff, and 53% of business school students reported abuse at work.” [18] The areas of industry in which emotional abuse happens are not limited to one, but rather they range from hospitals, universities, manufacturing plants, research industries, and social service agencies.[18]

With such frequency of workplace bullying to various groups of people, many theories exist in discussing the causes of workplace bullying. One side argues that the bullying targets are in fact responsible for the bullying.[16] More specifically, some physicians and psychologists attribute the cause of workplace bullying to the target employee’s mental disorders, such as general anxiety disorder, instead of the working situation.[16] The opposite argument contends that the cause of workplace bullying lies in the organizational problems and poor leadership skills. Another argument states that workplace bullying is a multi-causal phenomenon, as different factors can play their respective roles in building the tension.[19] Despite this plethora of arguments, Zapf addresses that academic analysis of the cause is difficult.[16] Getting the perspective of perpetrators and potential bystanders is unrealistic, and therefore the studies are primarily focused on victims’ interviews.”


Discrimination at work – bullying and harassment
“If you’re bullied at work or your colleagues behave in an offensive or intimidating way towards you, it could be unlawful harassment under the Equality Act 2010. Harassment is a form of discrimination under the Act.”


Harassment in the Workplace Part 1

Harassment in the Workplace Part 2

Harassment in the Workplace Part 3


Harassment Training 1 of 2

Harassment Training 2 of 2


The Four Workplace Bully Types

The Bully at Work: What You Can Do to Stop the Hurt and Reclaim Your Dignity on the Job


Plausible deniability
“Plausible deniability is the ability for persons (typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command) to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others (usually subordinates in an organizational hierarchy) because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions. In the case that illegal or otherwise disreputable and unpopular activities become public, high-ranking officials may deny any awareness of such act in order to insulate themselves and shift blame onto the agents who carried out the acts, confident that their doubters will be unable to prove otherwise. The lack of evidence to the contrary ostensibly makes the denial plausible, that is, credible, although sometimes it merely makes it unactionable. The term typically implies forethought, such as intentionally setting up the conditions to plausibly avoid responsibility for one’s (future) actions or knowledge. In some organizations, legal doctrines such as command responsibility exist to hold major parties responsible for the actions of subordinates involved in heinous acts and nullify any legal protection that their denial of involvement would carry.”





How To Deal With A Bullying Boss
“Taylor explains that there are different types of “bullying bosses.” On the more extreme end of the spectrum, there are those who throw tirades and intimidate employees continuously; some are even guilty of sexual harassment, she says. “Their behavior is nefarious enough to warrant termination and legal ramifications.” At the other end of the spectrum you’ll find the covert bully; the much more rampant, fear-provoking boss, who acts out episodically. “On Monday he’s Mr. Nice Guy and on Tuesday he’s Attila the Hun. These bosses with bullying tendencies are masters at pushing you to the limit without giving you enough fodder to pursue legal action. For example, they may attempt to disguise their demeaning and discourteous behavior with levity, saying, ‘Oh, I was just joking,’ or ‘You’re too sensitive. You know you’re doing a great job.’”

Teach agrees that there are many ways in which a boss or supervisor can bully his or her staff. “It could be by yelling at them if the employee doesn’t please the boss. It could be by constantly threatening them; always telling the employee that their job is at stake. It could be by embarrassing them by constantly criticizing them in front of their co-workers. It could be by putting the employee in an uncomfortable position; giving them an order that puts the employee’s job or reputation in jeopardy. And sometimes bullying can be less obvious. The bullying boss may simply ignore the employee or not include them in meetings anymore.””


Workplace Bullying Institute
“WBI is the first and only U.S. organization dedicated to the eradication of workplace bullying that combines help for individuals, research, books, public education, training for professionals-unions-employers, legislative advocacy, and consulting solutions for organizations.”


How Bullying Can Affect Your Brain and Body
“Stressors, aspects of the work environment and the behavior of people working there, can generate stress. Bullies are stressors, but so are coworkers who do nothing when you expect them to help. In addition, do-nothing institutional helpers — HR and senior management — exacerbate problems.
Stress is the biological human response to stressors. It is physiological and real, not just imagined. Low-level stress may be necessary to compel people to act. However, severe stress, which prevents rational, controlled action, has overwhelmingly negative consequences.
Distress, not eustress, is the harmful variety of stress. Distress triggers the human stress response which is an automatically coordinated release of glucocorticoids, cortisol being the most prominent hormone, that floods the brain and body. Prolonged exposure of brain tissue glucocorticoids leads to atrophy of areas responsible for memory, emotional regulation and an ability to sustain positive social relationships.
Stress-related diseases and health complications from prolonged exposure to the stressors of bullying:
Cardiovascular Problems: Hypertension (60%) to Strokes, Heart Attacks
Adverse Neurological Changes: Neurotransmitter Disruption, Hippocampus and Amygdala atrophy
Gastrointestinal: IBD, colitis
Immunological Impairment: More frequent infections of greater severity
Auto-immune disorders
Fibromyalgia (21%), Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (33%)
Diabetes (10%)
Skin Disorders (17%)
Some physical indications of the above stress might include:
Tremors of the Lips, Hands, Etc.
Feeling Uncoordinated
Profuse Sweating
Rapid Heartbeat
Rapid Breathing
Elevated Blood Pressure
Chest Pain
Uncontrollable Crying


The difference between bullying and management
How to recognise a bullying manager in your organisation

Manager Bully
Leader Bully, coward
Decisive Random, impulsive
Has a good appreciation of short, medium and long term needs, goals and strategy Rigidly short term, often no more than 24 hours
Accepts responsibility Abdicates responsibility
Shares credit Plagiarises, takes all the credit
Acknowledges failings Denies failings, always blames others
Learns from experience and applies knowledge gained from experience to improve business, communication, language and interpersonal skills Has a learning blindness, cannot apply knowledge gained from experience except how to be more devious, manipulative, and how to better evade accountability
Consistent Inconsistent, random, impulsive
Fair, treats all equally Inconsistent, always critical, singles people out, shows favouritism
Respectful and considerate Disrespectful and inconsiderate
Seeks and retains people more knowledgeable and experienced than self Favours weaker employees, recruits henchmen and toadying types
Values others Unable to value, constantly devalues others
Includes everyone Includes and excludes people selectively
Leads by example Dominates, sets a poor example
Truthful Economical, uses distortion and fabrication
Confident Insecure, arrogant
Behaviourally mature Behaviourally immature
Emotionally mature, high EQ (emotional intelligence) Emotionally immature, very low EQ (emotional intelligence)
Good interpersonal skills Poor interpersonal skills
Good etiquette Poor etiquette
Balanced objectivity Exclusive self-interest
Cares about staff, the business, etc Cares only about self
Respects clients Is contemptuous of clients
Gets on well with people at all levels and from all backgrounds Identifies only with clones of himself or herself
Assertive Aggressive
Delegates Dumps
Builds team spirit Divisive, uses manipulation and threat
Uses influencing skills Alienates, divides, creates fear and uncertainty
Motivates Demotivates
Listens, guides, instructs Tells
Has high expectations (that staff will do well) Has low expectations of everybody
Shares fairly Controls and subjugates
Shares information freely Withholds information, releases selectively, uses information as a weapon
Always strives for clarity Revels in confusion, divide and rule etc
Allows and trusts people to get on with the job Constantly interfering, dictating and controlling
Only addresses genuine performance issues and then focuses on performance and behaviour Makes false claims about alleged underperformance and focuses on the person, not behaviour or performance
Focused on the future Obsessed with the past
Respected Loathed
Sets a good example Sets a bad example
Has good moral code and moral integrity Amoral behaviour, no integrity
Has honesty and integrity Exhibits hypocrisy and duplicity
Rarely uses the disciplinary procedures Frequently imposes verbal warnings and written warning without justification


Is Your Boss A Bully?

Ten Signs You’re Being Bullied At Work



Watch out for these 8 workplace bully personality types: The 8 most common bully personalities
“1. The Screaming Mimi. This is the most easily recognizable type of workplace bully. Screaming Mimis are loud and obnoxious, and their abusive behavior is meant to berate and humiliate people. They thrive on the notion that others fear them.
2. The Two-Headed Snake. To a co-worker’s face, this employee acts like a trusted friend or colleague. However, when the co-worker is out of earshot, this person will destroy his colleague’s reputation, stab him in the back and even take credit for his work.
3. The Constant Critic. This bully’s goal is to dismantle other people’s confidence through constant – and often unwarranted – criticism. A critic will look for any possible flaw in someone’s work and labors tirelessly to kill that person’s credibility. Impeccable work? No problem: This type of bully isn’t above falsifying documents or creating evidence to make others look bad.
4. The Gatekeeper. Every office has at least one employee who gets off on wielding his or her power over others – regardless of whether that power is real or perceived. Gatekeepers deny people the tools they need – whether it’s resources, time or information – to do their jobs efficiently.
5. The Attention Seeker. This type of bully wants to be the center of the action at all times. They’ll try to get on their superior’s good side through consistent flattery and even come on as kind and helpful to their peers – especially the newer employees. However, if co-workers don’t provide the right amount of attention, these bullies can quickly turn on them.
Attention seekers are often overly dramatic and relate everything to something that’s going wrong in their own lives to garner sympathy and control. These bullies also have a tendency to coax personal info out of new employees – only to use it against them later.
6. The Wannabe. This is an employee who sees himself or herself as absolutely indispensable and expects recognition for everything. But Wannabes aren’t usually very good at their jobs. To compensate, these bullies spend a majority of their time watching more competent workers and looking for areas of skilled workers’ performance to complain about.
Wannabes will demand that everything is done their way – even when there are better ways of doing things. Because they’re automatically opposed to others’ ideas, they’ll do everything in their power to prevent changes to their work processes.
7. The Guru. Generally, there’s nothing wrong with this bully’s work performance. In fact, it’s not unusual for a Guru to be considered an expert in his or her own niche area. What these bullies offer in technical skill, however, they severely lack in emotional maturity.
Gurus see themselves as being superior to their co-workers. As a result, they don’t consider how their actions will affect others, aren’t able to fathom the possibility that they can be wrong and don’t accept responsibility for their own actions. In addition, because these bullies feel as though they’re “above it all,” they don’t always feel compelled to follow the same rules as everybody else.
8. The Sociopath. Intelligent, well-spoken, charming and charismatic, sociopaths are the most destructive bullies of all. Reason: They have absolutely no empathy for others, yet they are experts at manipulating the emotions of others in order to get what they want.
These bullies often rise to positions of power within the company, which makes them extremely dangerous. Sociopaths tend to surround themselves with a circle of lackeys who are willing to do their dirty work in exchange for moving up the ranks with them.”

What Type of Bullying are You Experiencing?
“Workplace Bullying, School & Youth Bullying, Cyber Bullying, Religious Bullying, Gang Stalking, Neighbour From Hell”


5 Toughest Personalities at Work–and How to Manage Them
“Narcissists, Passive-Aggressive Types, Gossips, Anger Addicts, Guilt Trippers”



How To Deal With Favoritism At Work

Favoritism in the Workplace: Is it illegal?

How to Deal With a Boss Showing Favoritism


jokes about favoritism


Difference between Boss and Leader By OfficeVibe (Read Description)



10 Signs Your Girlfriend or Wife is an Emotional Bully
“1) Bullying. If she doesn’t get her way, there’s hell to pay. She wants to control you and resorts to emotional intimidation to do it. She uses verbal assaults and threats in order to get you to do what she wants. It makes her feel powerful to make you feel bad. People with a Narcissistic personality are often bullies.
Result: You lose your self-respect and feel outnumbered, sad, and alone. You develop a case of Stockholm Syndrome, in which you identify with the aggressor and actually defend her behavior to others.

2) Unreasonable expectations. No matter how hard you try and how much you give, it’s never enough. She expects you to drop whatever you’re doing and attend to her needs. No matter the inconvenience, she comes first. She has an endless list of demands that no one mere mortal could ever fulfill.
Common complaints include: You’re not romantic enough, you don’t spend enough time with me, you’re not sensitive enough, you’re not smart enough to figure out my needs, you’re not making enough money, you’re not FILL IN THE BLANK enough. Basically, you’re not enough, because there’s no pleasing this woman. No one will ever be enough for her, so don’t take it to heart.
Result: You’re constantly criticized because you’re not able to meet her needs and experience a sense of learned helplessness. You feel powerless and defeated because she puts you in no-win situations.

3) Verbal attacks.This is self-explanatory. She employs schoolyard name calling, pathologizing (e.g., armed with a superficial knowledge of psychology she uses diagnostic terms like labile, paranoid, narcissistic, etc. for a 50-cent version of name calling), criticizing, threatening, screaming, yelling, swearing, sarcasm, humiliation, exaggerating your flaws, and making fun of you in front of others, including your children and other people she’s not intimidated by. Verbal assault is another form of bullying, and bullies only act like this in front of those whom they don’t fear or people who let them get away with their bad behavior.
Result: Your self-confidence and sense of self-worth all but disappear. You may even begin to believe the horrible things she says to you.

4) Gaslighting. “I didn’t do that. I didn’t say that. I don’t know what you’re talking about. It wasn’t that bad. You’re imagining things. Stop making things up.” If the woman you’re involved with is prone to Borderline or Narcissistic rage episodes, in which she spirals into outer orbit, she may very well not remember things she’s said and done. However, don’t doubt your perception and memory of events. They happened and they are that bad.
Result: Her gaslighting behavior may cause you to doubt your own sanity. It’s crazy-making behavior that leaves you feeling confused, bewildered, and helpless.

5) Unpredictable responses. Round and round and round she goes. Where she’ll stop, nobody knows. She reacts differently to you on different days or at different times. For example, on Monday, it’s ok for you to Blackberry work email in front of her. On Wednesday, the same behavior is “disrespectful, insensitive, you don’t love me, you’re a self-important jerk, you’re a workaholic.” By Friday, it could be okay for you to Blackberry again.
Telling you one day that something’s alright and the next day that it’s not is emotionally abusive behavior. It’s like walking through a landmine in which the mines shift location.
Result: You’re constantly on edge, walking on eggshells, and waiting for the other shoe to drop. This is a trauma response. You’re being traumatized by her behavior. Because you can’t predict her responses, you become hypervigilant to any change in her mood or potential outburst, which leaves you in a perpetual state of anxiety and possibly fear. It’s a healthy sign to be afraid of this behavior. It’s scary. Don’t feel ashamed to admit it.

6) Constant Chaos. She’s addicted to conflict. She gets a charge from the adrenaline and drama. She may deliberately start arguments and conflict as a way to avoid intimacy, to avoid being called on her bullshit, to avoid feeling inferior or, bewilderingly, as an attempt to avoid being abandoned. She may also pick fights to keep you engaged or as a way to get you to react to her with hostility, so that she can accuse you of being abusive and she can play the victim. This maneuver is a defense mechanism called projective identification.
Result: You become emotionally punch drunk. You’re left feeling dazed and confused, not knowing which end is up. This is highly stressful because it also requires you to be hypervigilant and in a constant state of defense for incoming attacks.

7) Emotional Blackmail. She threatens to abandon you, to end the relationship, or give you the cold shoulder if you don’t play by her rules. She plays on your fears, vulnerabilities, weaknesses, shame, values, sympathy, compassion, and other “buttons” to control you and get what she wants.
Result: You feel manipulated, used, and controlled.

8 Rejection. She ignores you, won’t look at you when you’re in the same room, gives you the cold shoulder, withholds affection, withholds sex, declines or puts down your ideas, invitations, suggestions, and pushes you away when you try to be close. After she pushes you as hard and as far away as she can, she’ll try to be affectionate with you. You’re still hurting from her previous rebuff or attack and don’t respond. Then she accuses you of being cold and rejecting, which she’ll use as an excuse to push you away again in the future.
Result: You feel undesirable, unwanted, and unlovable. You believe no one else would want you and cling to this abusive woman, grateful for whatever scraps of infrequent affection she shows you.

9) Withholding affection and sex. This is another form of rejection and emotional blackmail. It’s not just about sex, it’s about withholding physical, psychological, and emotional nurturing. It includes a lack of interest in what’s important to you–your job, family, friends, hobbies, activities–and being uninvolved, emotionally detached or shut down with you.
Result: You have a transactional relationship in which you have to perform tasks, buy her things, “be nice to her,” or give into her demands in order to receive love and affection from her. You don’t feel loved and appreciated for who you are, but for what you do for her or buy her.

10) Isolating. She demands or acts in ways that cause you to distance yourself from your family, friends, or anyone that would be concerned for your well-being or a source of support. This typically involves verbally trashing your friends and family, being overtly hostile to your family and friends, or acting out and starting arguments in front of others to make it as unpleasant as possible for them to be around the two of you.
Result: This makes you completely dependent upon her. She takes away your outside sources of support and/or controls the amount of interaction you have with them. You’re left feeling trapped and alone, afraid to tell anyone what really goes on in your relationship because you don’t think they’ll believe you.

You don’t have to accept emotional abuse in your relationship. You can get help or you can end it. Most emotionally abusive women don’t want help. They don’t think they need it. They are the professional victims, bullies, narcissists, and borderlines. They’re abusive personality types and don’t know any other way to act in relationships.
Life is too short to spend one more second in this kind of relationship. If your partner won’t admit she has a problem and agree to get help, real help, then it’s in your best interest to get support, get out, and stay out.”



employment tribunal


Representing yourself in the Employment Tribunal




Misc Links

paralysis by analysis
“Analysis paralysis or paralysis by analysis is the state of over-analyzing (or over-thinking) a situation so that a decision or action is never taken, in effect paralyzing the outcome.”

Occupational burnout
“Burnout is a type of psychological stress. Occupational burnout or job burnout is characterized by exhaustion, lack of enthusiasm and motivation, feelings of ineffectiveness, and also may have the dimension of frustration or cynicism, and as a result reduced efficacy within the workplace.”


Accountability vs. Responsibility
“The main difference between responsibility and accountability is that responsibility can be shared while accountability cannot. Being accountable not only means being responsible for something but also ultimately being answerable for your actions. Also, accountability is something you hold a person to only after a task is done or not done. Responsibility can be before and/or after a task.”

Accountability Vs Responsibility In Project Management
“When we saw this article about “Accountability vs Responsibility in Project Management” from Shim Marom, we felt like it would make a great addition as a guest post on our blog. Workfront is always looking for ideas to make work more effective and hope you benefit from Shim’s insights!”