Social Stratification, Honor Code, Ethical Code

Social stratification
“Social stratification is a society’s categorization of people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political). As such, stratification is the relative social position of persons within a social group, category, geographic region, or social unit. In modern Western societies, social stratification typically is distinguished as three social classes: (i) the upper class, (ii) the middle class, and (iii) the lower class; in turn, each class can be subdivided into strata, e.g. the upper-stratum, the middle-stratum, and the lower stratum.[1] Moreover, a social stratum can be formed upon the bases of kinship or caste, or both.

The categorization of people by social strata occurs in all societies, ranging from the complex, state-based societies to tribal and feudal societies, which are based upon socio-economic relations among classes of nobility and classes of peasants. Historically, whether or not hunter-gatherer societies can be defined as socially stratified or if social stratification began with agriculture and common acts of social exchange, remains a debated matter in the social sciences.[2] Determining the structures of social stratification arises from inequalities of status among persons, therefore, the degree of social inequality determines a person’s social stratum. Generally, the greater the social complexity of a society, the more social strata exist, by way of social differentiation.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_stratification
Caste
“Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, non-commensality and hereditary occupations.[1][2] According to Human Rights Watch and UNICEF, caste discrimination affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide.[3][4]

A paradigmatic, ethnographic example is the division of Indian society into social groups.[5][3] Historically, the caste system in India has consisted of thousands of endogamous groups called Jatis or Quoms and Biradaris (among Muslims). The Nepalese caste system resembles the Indian Jāti system with numerous Jāti divisions with the theoretical Varna system superimposed for a rough equivalence.

Religious, historical and sociocultural factors have also helped define the bounds of endogamy for Muslims in India and Pakistan. The .Caste .system in Sri Lanka is a division. of society into strata,[6] similar to the Jāti system found in India.

Yezidi society is hierarchical. In Yemen there exists a hereditary caste, the African-descended Al-Akhdam who are kept as perennial manual workers. Various sociologists have reported caste systems in Africa.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste
Warrior caste
“Warrior caste can refer to;

Kshatriya – A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra.
Minbari Warrior Caste – In the fictional Babylon 5 universe, the Warrior Caste is one of three castes in Minbari society.
Samoa’s Toa class, which used a warrior code known as fa’aaloalo (respect) that is still in existence today;
Knights
Spartiate
Samurai caste
Jaguar Knight”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warrior_caste

 

Social Stratification: Crash Course Sociology #21
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlkIKCMt-Fs

 

 

Fragmentation

Social Fragmentation (sociology)
“In urban sociology, fragmentation refers to the absence or the underdevelopment of connections between the society and the groupings of some members of that society on the lines of a common culture, nationality, race, language, occupation, religion, income level, or other common interests.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fragmentation_(sociology)

Social fragmentation, deprivation and urbanicity: Social fragmentation, deprivation and urbanicity: relation to first-admission rates for psychoses
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/187/5/401

Fragmentation and Cohesion in American Society
http://web.mit.edu/gtmarx/www/frag.html

What Social Fragmentation Means for Marketers
https://www.clickz.com/clickz/column/2268731/what-social-fragmentation-means-for-marketers

Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty, and suicide
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC28254/

 

Honor Codes

Academic honor code
“An academic honor code or honor system is a set of rules or ethical principles governing an academic community based on ideals that define what constitutes honorable behaviour within that community. The use of an honour code depends on the notion that people (at least within the community) can be trusted to act honorably. Those who are in violation of the honour code can be subject to various sanctions, including expulsion from the institution. Honour codes are used to deter academic dishonesty.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_honor_code

Academic dishonesty
“Academic dishonesty or academic misconduct is any type of cheating that occurs in relation to a formal academic exercise. It can include

Plagiarism: The adoption or reproduction of original creations of another author (person, collective, organization, community or other type of author, including anonymous authors) without due acknowledgment.
Fabrication: The falsification of data, information, or citations in any formal academic exercise.
Deception: Providing false information to an instructor concerning a formal academic exercise—e.g., giving a false excuse for missing a deadline or falsely claiming to have submitted work.
Cheating: Any attempt to obtain assistance in a formal academic exercise (like an examination) without due acknowledgment.
Bribery: or paid services. Giving assignment answers or test answers for money.
Sabotage: Acting to prevent others from completing their work. This includes cutting pages out of library books or willfully disrupting the experiments of others.
Professorial misconduct: Professorial acts that are academically fraudulent equate to academic fraud and/or grade fraud.
Impersonation: assuming a student’s identity with intent to provide an advantage for the student.[1][2][3][4]
Academic dishonesty has been documented in every type of educational setting from elementary school to graduate school. Throughout history this type of dishonesty has been met with varying degrees of approbation.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_dishonesty
Ethical code
“Ethical codes are often adopted by management, not to promote a particular moral theory, but rather because they are seen as pragmatic necessities for running an organization in a complex society in which moral concepts play an important part.
They are distinct from moral codes that may apply to the culture, education, and religion of a whole society. It is debated whether the politicians should apply a code of ethics,[2] or whether it is a profession entirely discretionary, just subject to compliance with the law: however, recently codes of practice have been approved in this field.[3]
Often, acts that violate ethical codes may also violate a law or regulation and can be punishable at law or by government agency remedies.
Even organizations and communities that may be considered criminal in nature may have ethical codes of conduct, official or unofficial. Examples could include hacker communities, bands of thieves, and street gangs.
The Jewish Written Torah and Oral Torah comprise the earliest and best preserved ethical code. Adapted to every field of actual day-to-day life since thousands of years, Jewish Halakha is the oldest collective body of religious laws, laws and jurisdictions still in use.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_code

Code of conduct
“A code of conduct is a set of rules outlining the social norms and rules and responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an individual, party or organization. Related concepts include ethical, honor, moral codes and religious laws.”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Code_of_conduct

 

ethics in computer security

White Hat Hacker
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_hat_(computer_security)

Hacker Classifications: White Hat, Black Hat, Grey Hat, Elite Hacker, Script Kiddie, Neophyte, Blue Hat, Hacktivist, Nation state, Organized criminal gangs
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hacker_(computer_security)#Classifications

 

 

Fostering Services: National Minimum Standards
https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/192705/NMS_Fostering_Services.pdf
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/fostering-services-national-minimum-standards

 

NRS social grade
Grade	Social class            Chief income earner's occupation	Frequency in 2008
A	upper middle class	Higher managerial, administrative or professional						         4%
B	middle class	        Intermediate managerial, administrative or professional							23%
C1	lower middle class	Supervisory or clerical and junior managerial, administrative or professional			        29%
C2	skilled working class	Skilled manual workers										        21%
D	working class	        Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers								15%
E	non working	        Casual or lowest grade workers, pensioners, and others who depend on the welfare state for their income	 8%
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRS_social_grade

 

Social Grade, A Classification Tool, Bite Sized Thought Piece
https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/publication/6800-03/MediaCT_thoughtpiece_Social_Grade_July09_V3_WEB.pdf

Social Grade Allocation to the 2011 Census
https://www.mrs.org.uk/pdf/Social%20Grade%20Allocation%20for%202011%20Census.pdf